Influence of menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol on volatile sulfur compound

Shahla Kakoei, Fahimeh Barkhori, Ali Mirzazadeh, Mohammad Mohammadi, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian


BACKGROUND: ß -estradiol is a steroid sex hormone that plays important role in oral physiology. The aim of this study was to determin the association of the menstrual cycle and salivary ß-estradiol with the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC).

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, twenty female dental students in good oral and general health were recruited for evaluation of VSC, salivary flow, ß-estradiol concentration, oral dryness feeling and dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzed by marginal homogeneity test and xtgee model.

RESULTS: The only covariates that significantly related to VSC were being at the follicular phase (B = -0.21, P = 0.02), being at the pre-menstrual phase (B = -0.25, P = 0.01), stressfulness (B = 0.02, P = 0.01) and oral dryness feeling
(B = 0.34, P = 0.02). Salivary ß-estradiol was at the level of 59.7 ± 31.2 in those having halitosis (VSC ≥ 75) while in the others (VSC < 75) it was about 40.8 ± 18.0 (P < 0.009). This difference was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cycle, stress and oral dryness were the most important determinants of halitosis. The salivary ß-estradiol level could not explain such relationship as its effect was eliminated considering the other factors.


Halitosis, menstrual cycle, ß-estradiol, volatile sulfur compound

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