Epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers: A retrospective study in ‎Kermanshah, Iran

Mohammad Reza Zarei, Goli Chamani, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Elaheh Tahmasebi, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Mahdi Momeni-Tikdari


BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and relative frequency of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kermanshah, Iran, from March 1993 until March 2006.

METHODS: The data used in this epidemiologic study were extracted directly from pathology records registered in 12 (all) public and private pathology centers of Kermanshah province during the 13-year study period. The medical data of 13,323 cases of cancer were studied.

RESULTS: During the 13-year period of this study, 350 new malignant cases occurred in the oral cavity and pharynx. 247 (70%) were men and 103 (30%) were women. The mean age for oral and pharyngeal cancers was 57 [standard deviation (SD) = 17.09] with male to female ratio 2.39:1. The most common oral and pharyngeal cancers were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with 283 patients. 211 (74.6%) of the patients were men and 72 (25.4%) of them were women; the mean age of SCC was 60 (SD = 16) with male to female ratio 2.93:1. The two most common sites of involvement were lips [166 (47.5%)] and tongue [25 (7.14%)]. The overall incidence rate of oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.47 per 100000 populations.

CONCLUSION: In summary, the incidence risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers in people living in Kermanshah province is similar to the most other provinces of Iran. However, this study showed that the rank of oral and pharyngeal cancers among males (9th most common cancer) is low when compared to other regions of Iran and other countries such as India, Australia, and France.


Epidemiology; Oral Cancer; Pharyngeal Cancer; Iran

Full Text:



Zini A, Czerninski R, Sgan-Cohen HD. Oral cancer over four decades: epidemiology, trends, histology, and survival by anatomical sites. J Oral Pathol Med 2010; 39(4): 299-305.

Saman DM. A review of the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: update. Head Neck Oncol 2012; 4(1): 1.

Canto MT, Devesa SS. Oral cavity and pharynx cancer incidence rates in the United States, 1975-1998. Oral Oncol 2002; 38(6): 610-7.

Robinson KL, Macfarlane GJ. Oropharyngeal cancer incidence and mortality in Scotland: are rates still increasing? Oral Oncol 2003; 39(1): 31-6.

Rodrigues VC, Moss SM, Tuomainen H. Oral cancer in the UK: to screen or not to screen. Oral Oncology 1998; 34: 454-65.

Greenberg M, Glick M. Burket's oral medicine: diagnosis & treatment. New York, NY: People's Medical Publishing House – USA; 2003.

Sharma P, Saxena S, Aggarwal P. Trends in the epidemiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Western UP: an institutional study. Indian J Dent Res 2010; 21(3): 316-9.

Chi AC, Day TA, Neville BW. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma--an update. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65(5): 401-21.

Wunsch-Filho V. The epidemiology of oral and pharynx cancer in Brazil. Oral Oncol 2002; 38(8): 737-46.

Radoï L, Menvielle G, Cyr D, Lapôtre-Ledoux B, Stücker I, Luce D, et al. Population attributable risks of oral cavity cancer to behavioral and medical risk factors in France: results of a large population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. BMC Cancer 2015; 15: 827.

Krishna Rao SV, Mejia G, Roberts-Thomson K, Logan R. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Asia in the past decade-an update (2000-2012). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(10): 5567-77.

Benson E, Li R, Eisele D, Fakhry C. The clinical impact of HPV tumor status upon head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Oral Oncol 2014; 50(6): 565-74.

Maleki D, Ghojazadeh M, Mahmoudi SS, Mahmoudi SM, Pournaghi-Azar F, Torab A, et al. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Iran: a systematic review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16(13): 5427-32.

Wikipedia. Kermanshah [Online]. [cited 2015]; Available from: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kermanshah&oldid=694982608

World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) [Online]. [cited 2007]; Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/

Tabrizchee H, Masoomian M, Ahani F. The pattern of malignant tumors in Kerman province. Med J I R Iran 1998; 12(1): 19-23.

Habibi A. Epidemiological aspects of cancer in Iran. Int Surg 1985; 70(2): 105-8.

Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Herrero R, Munoz N. Comparison of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx worldwide: etiological clues. Oral Oncol 2000; 36(1): 106-15.

Diz Dios P, Padron GN, Seoane LJ, Tomas C, Limeres PJ, Varela-Centelles P. "Scheduling delay" in oral cancer diagnosis: a new protagonist. Oral Oncol 2005; 41(2): 142-6.

Tarvainen L, Suuronen R, Lindqvist C, Malila N. Is the incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancer increasing in Finland? An epidemiological study of 17,383 cases in 1953-1999. Oral Dis 2004; 10(3): 167-72.

Fahmy MS, Sadeghi A, Behmard S. Epidemiologic study of oral cancer in Fars province, Iran. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1983; 11(1): 50-8.

Rad M, Chamani G, Zarei MR, Hashemipour M. Epidemiological aspects of head and neck cancers in a group of Iranian population. J Dent Shiraz Univ Med Sci 2010; 10(Suppl): 50-6.

Saedi B, Razmpa E, Ghalandarabad M, Ghadimi H, Saghafi F, Naseri M. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancers in a country located in the esophageal cancer belt: a case control study. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2012; 24(68): 113-8.

Rawashdeh MA, Matalka I. Malignant oral tumors in Jordanians, 1991-2001. A descriptive epidemiological study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 33(2): 183-8.

Yaghoobi R, Aliari AA, Emad Mostovfi N, Latifi SM. Epidemiologic study of oral cancers in Khouzestan province in a 10-year period, 1992-2002. Iran J Dermatol 2004; 8(29): 24-31. [In Persian].

Izarzugaza MI, Esparza H, Aguirre JM. Epidemiological aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in the Basque country. J Oral Pathol Med 2001; 30(9): 521-6.

Chamani G, Zarei MR, Rad M. Epidemiological aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Iranians. Oral Oncology Supplement 2005; 1(1): 70.

Andisheh-Tadbir A, Mehrabani D, Heydari ST. Epidemiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in Iran. J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19(6): 1699-702.

Elter JR, Patton LL, Strauss RP. Incidence rates and trends for oral and pharyngeal cancer in North Carolina: 1990-1999. Oral Oncology 2005; 41(5): 470-9.

Moore S, Johnson N, Pierce A, Wilson D. The epidemiology of lip cancer: a review of global incidence and aetiology. Oral Dis 1999; 5(3): 185-95.

Luna-Ortiz K, Guemes-Meza A, Villavicencio-Valencia V, Mosqueda-Taylor A. Lip cancer experience in Mexico. An 11-year retrospective study. Oral Oncol 2004; 40(10): 992-9.

Llewellyn CD, Linklater K, Bell J, Johnson NW, Warnakulasuriya KA. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in patients aged 45 years and under: a descriptive analysis of 116 cases diagnosed in the South East of England from 1990 to 1997. Oral Oncol 2003; 39(2): 106-14.

de Visscher JG, van der Waal I. Etiology of cancer of the lip. A review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998; 27(3): 199-203.

Macfarlane GJ, Boyle P, Scully C. Oral cancer in Scotland: changing incidence and mortality. BMJ 1992; 305(6862): 1121-3.

Iamaroon A, Pattanaporn K, Pongsiriwet S, Wanachantararak S, Prapayasatok S, Jittidecharaks S, et al. Analysis of 587 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in northern Thailand with a focus on young people. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 33(1): 84-8.

Budhy TI, Soenarto SD, Yaacob HB, Ngeow WC. Changing incidence of oral and maxillofacial tumours in East Java, Indonesia, 1987-1992. Part 2: Malignant tumours. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2001; 39(6): 460-4.

Otoh EC, Johnson NW, Olasoji H, Danfillo IS, Adeleke OA. Salivary gland neoplasms in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Oral Dis 2005; 11(6): 386-91.

Vargas PA, Gerhard R, Araujo Filho VJ, de Castro IV. Salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 124 cases. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2002; 57(6): 271-6.

Epstein JB, Epstein JD, Le ND, Gorsky M. Characteristics of oral and paraoral malignant lymphoma: a population-based review of 361 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001; 92(5): 519-25.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Oral Health and Oral Epidemiology

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.