Assessing the questionnaires on perceived oral healthcare need: A systematic review

Zahra Yaghoubi, Tayebeh Malek-Mohammadi, Mohammad Khajedaluee, Maryam Salehi


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Perception of the need for oral healthcare plays a key role in creating motivation and demand for utilization of oral healthcare services. Furthermore, while the lack of resources, people with perceived needs to oral healthcare, due to the higher profit potential of services, will be on higher priority for services. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the existing literature about questionnaires used for assessing the perceived oral healthcare needs.

METHODS: The search was conducted in PubMed, ISI and Scopus databases in March 2016. Questionnaire-based and the papers which aimed to determine the perceived need for any type of oral healthcare and dental treatment were included to this study. After determining the appropriate papers, related data were extracted and reviewed.

RESULTS: Out of 7069 records found, 190 questionnaire-based papers were included in the review. Ninety-four papers were related to the overall evaluation of oral healthcare need, which did not ask the need for types of oral healthcare service. Sixty-six papers studied the need for a specified dental service, and thirty papers recorded the types of oral healthcare service via asking the open or multiple choices questions. There were not comprehensive and standard questionnaires covering all the common types of oral healthcare services.

CONCLUSION: Despite the importance of considering the perception of needs for oral healthcare, there is a lack of the comprehensive and standard questionnaires. Studies aimed to assess perceived oral healthcare needs should use questionnaires which include appropriate items on common types of oral healthcare services based on the characteristics of the target group. Concordance with perceived and normative need is an issue that should be addressed in future researches.


Oral Health; Surveys and Questionnaires; Review; Needs

Full Text:



Sheiham A. Oral health, general health and quality of life. Bull World Health Organ 2005; 83(9): 644.

Petersen PE. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 37(1): 1-8.

Sheiham A, Tsakos G. Oral health needs assessment. In: Pine CM, Harris R, editors. Community oral health. London, UK: Quintessence Publishing; 2007. p. 59-76.

Sheiham A, Maizels JE, Cushing AM. The concept of need in dental care. Int Dent J 1982; 32(3): 265-70.

Luchi CA, Peres KG, Bastos JL, Peres MA. Inequalities in self-rated oral health in adults. Rev Saude Publica 2013; 47(4): 740-51.

Locker D, Allen F. What do measures of 'oral health-related quality of life' measure? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007; 35(6): 401-11.

Singh H, Maharaj RG, Naidu R. Oral health among the elderly in 7 Latin American and Caribbean cities, 1999-2000: A cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2015; 15: 46.

Vale EB, Mendes AC, Moreira RS. Self-perceived oral health among adults in Northeastern Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 2013; 47(Suppl 3): 98-108. [In Portuguese].

Ramraj C, Azarpazhooh A, Dempster L, Ravaghi V, Quinonez C. Dental treatment needs in the Canadian population: Analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional survey. BMC Oral Health 2012; 12: 46.

Lundegren N, Axtelius B, Hakansson J, Akerman S. Dental treatment need among 20 to 25-year-old Swedes: Discrepancy between subjective and objective need. Acta Odontol Scand 2004; 62(2): 91-6.

Rikardsson S, Jonsson J, Hultin M, Gustafsson A, Johannsen A. Perceived oral health in patients with Crohn's disease. Oral Health Prev Dent 2009; 7(3): 277-82.

Syed S, Bilal S, Dawani N, Rizvi K. Dental anxiety among adult patients and its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs. J Pak Med Assoc 2013; 63(5): 614-8.

Stenberg P, Hakansson J, Akerman S. Attitudes to dental health and care among 20 to 25-year-old Swedes: Results from a questionnaire. Acta Odontol Scand 2000; 58(3): 102-6.

Slayton RL, Damiano PC, Willard JC. Perceived dental needs of children enrolled in Iowa's Medicaid Supplemental Security Income (SSI) health plan. ASDC J Dent Child 2001; 68(3): 206-10, 152.

Maserejian NN, Trachtenberg F, Link C, Tavares M. Underutilization of dental care when it is freely available: A prospective study of the New England Children's Amalgam Trial. J Public Health Dent 2008; 68(3): 139-48.

Parker EJ, Jamieson LM. Associations between indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes. BMC Oral Health 2010; 10: 3.

Jamieson LM, Mejia GC, Slade GD, Roberts-Thomson KF. Predictors of untreated dental decay among 15-34-year-old Australians. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 37(1): 27-34.

Parker EJ, Jamieson LM, Steffens MA, Cathro P, Logan RM. Self-reported oral health of a metropolitan homeless population in Australia: Comparisons with population-level data. Aust Dent J 2011; 56(3): 272-7.

Sanders AE, Slade GD, Lim S, Reisine ST. Impact of oral disease on quality of life in the US and Australian populations. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 37(2): 171-81.

Sivaneswaran S. The oral health of adults in NSW, 2004-06. NSW Public Health Bull 2009; 20(3-4): 46-51.

Heft MW, Gilbert GH, Shelton BJ, Duncan RP. Relationship of dental status, sociodemographic status, and oral symptoms to perceived need for dental care. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003; 31(5): 351-60.

Gilbert GH, Duncan RP, Vogel WB. Determinants of dental care use in dentate adults: Six-monthly use during a 24-month period in the Florida Dental Care Study. Soc Sci Med 1998; 47(6): 727-37.

Hugo FN, Hilgert JB, de Sousa ML, da Silva DD, Pucca GA, Jr. Correlates of partial tooth loss and edentulism in the Brazilian elderly. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007; 35(3): 224-32.

Weyant RJ, Manz M, Corby P, Rustveld L, Close J. Factors associated with parents' and adolescents' perceptions of oral health and need for dental treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007; 35(5): 321-30.

Alpkilic BE, Ak G, Zulfikar B. Oral and general health-related quality of life among young patients with haemophilia. Haemophilia 2009; 15(1): 193-8.

Okunseri C, Girgis D, Self K, Jackson S, McGinley EL, Tarima SS. Factors associated with reported need for dental care among people who are homeless using assistance programs. Spec Care Dentist 2010; 30(4): 146-50.

Widstrom E, Seppala T. Willingness and ability to pay for unexpected dental expenses by Finnish adults. BMC Oral Health 2012; 12: 35.

Hunt RJ, Beck JD, Lemke JH, Kohout FJ, Wallace RB. Edentulism and oral health problems among elderly rural Iowans: the Iowa 65+ rural health study. Am J Public Health 1985; 75(10): 1177-81.

Hashim AN, Yusof ZY, Esa R. The Malay version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (Malay-ECOHIS)--assessing validity and reliability. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2015; 13: 190.

Tseveenjav B, Suominen AL, Varsio S, Knuuttila M, Vehkalahti MM. Do self-assessed oral health and treatment need associate with clinical findings? Results from the Finnish Nationwide Health 2000 Survey. Acta Odontol Scand 2014; 72(8): 926-35.

Locker D, Jokovic A. Using subjective oral health status indicators to screen for dental care needs in older adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1996; 24(6): 398-402.

Muirhead VE, Quinonez C, Figueiredo R, Locker D. Predictors of dental care utilization among working poor Canadians. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 37(3): 199-208.

Thomas-Weintraub A. Dental needs and dental service use patterns of an elderly edentulous population. J Prosthet Dent 1985; 54(4): 526-32.

Krisdapong S, Prasertsom P, Rattanarangsima K, Sheiham A. Relationships between oral diseases and impacts on Thai schoolchildren's quality of life: evidence from a Thai national oral health survey of 12- and 15-year-olds. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2012; 40(6): 550-9.

Lawal FB, Taiwo JO, Arowojolu MO. How valid are the psychometric properties of the oral health impact profile-14 measure in adult dental patients in Ibadan, Nigeria? Ethiop J Health Sci 2014; 24(3): 235-42.

Martins AM, Barreto SM, Pordeus IA. Factors associated to self-perceived need of dental care among Brazilian elderly. Rev Saude Publica 2008; 42(3): 487-96. [In Portuguese].

Mashoto KO, Astrom AN, David J, Masalu JR. Dental pain, oral impacts and perceived need for dental treatment in Tanzanian school students: a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2009; 7: 73.

Abanto J, Tsakos G, Paiva SM, Goursand D, Raggio DP, Bonecker M. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5). Health Qual Life Outcomes 2013; 11: 16.

Lintula T, Laitala V, Pesonen P, Sipila K, Laitala ML, Taanila A, et al. Self-reported oral health and associated factors in the North Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 31. BMC Oral Health 2014; 14: 155.

Ramraj CC, Quinonez CR. Emergency room visits for dental problems among working poor Canadians. J Public Health Dent 2013; 73(3): 210-6.

Agudelo-Suarez AA, Martinez-Herrera E, Posada-Lopez A, Sanchez-Patino D, Vinas-Sarmiento Y. Ethnicity and self-perceived oral health in Colombia: A cross-sectional analysis. J Immigr Minor Health 2014; 16(1): 111-8.

Molete MP, Yengopal V, Moorman J. Oral health needs and barriers to accessing care among the elderly in Johannesburg. SADJ 2014; 69(8): 352, 354-2, 357.

Hilton C, Simons B. Dental surgery attendance amongst patients with moderately advanced dementia attending a day unit: A survey of carers' views. Br Dent J 2003; 195(1): 39-40.

Nelson LP, Getzin A, Graham D, Zhou J, Wagle EM, McQuiston J, et al. Unmet dental needs and barriers to care for children with significant special healthcare needs. Pediatr Dent 2011; 33(1): 29-36.

Zollinger TW, Saywell J, Smith MA, Robinson RL, Knudson NE. Indiana Children's Special Healthcare Services Program: Impact of administrative changes on healthcare utilization, access to care, and unmet needs. J Child Healthcare 1999; 28(4): 349-64.

Lennon CA, Pellowski JA, White AC, Kalichman SC, Finitsis DJ, Turcios-Cotto V, et al. Service priorities and unmet service needs among people living with HIV/AIDS: Results from a nationwide interview of HIV/AIDS housing organizations. AIDS Care 2013; 25(9): 1083-91.

Rosenbach M, O'Neil S, Cook B, Trebino L, Walker DK. Characteristics, access, utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes of healthy start participants in eight sites. Matern Child Health J 2010; 14(5): 666-79.

Kertesz SG, McNeil W, Cash JJ, Desmond R, McGwin G, Jr., Kelly J, et al. Unmet need for medical care and safety net accessibility among Birmingham's homeless. J Urban Health 2014; 91(1): 33-45.

Calvasina P, Muntaner C, Quinonez C. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: An analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada. BMC Oral Health 2014; 14: 145.

Shi L, Stevens GD. Vulnerability and unmet healthcare needs. The influence of multiple risk factors. J Gen Intern Med 2005; 20(2): 148-54.

Hosseinpoor AR, Itani L, Petersen PE. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage: Results from the World Health Survey. J Dent Res 2012; 91(3): 275-81.

Macias EP, Morales LS. Utilization of healthcare services among adults attending a health fair in South Los Angeles County. J Community Health 2000; 25(1): 35-46.

Malecki K, Wisk LE, Walsh M, McWilliams C, Eggers S, Olson M. Oral health equity and unmet dental care needs in a population-based sample: Findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin. Am J Public Health 2015; 105(Suppl 3): S466-S474.

Skinner AC, Slifkin RT, Mayer ML. The effect of rural residence on dental unmet need for children with special healthcare needs. J Rural Health 2006; 22(1): 36-42.

Lundegren N, Axtelius B, Isberg PE, Akerman S. Analysis of the perceived oral treatment need using Andersen's behavioural model. Community Dent Health 2013; 30(2): 102-7.

Heaton LJ, Mancl LA, Grembowski D, Armfield JM, Milgrom P. Unmet dental need in community-dwelling adults with mental illness: Results from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. J Am Dent Assoc 2013; 144(3): e16-e23.

Calzon FS, Fernandez AA, Martin JJ, Murphy MJ. The impact of the economic crisis on unmet dental care needs in Spain. J Epidemiol Community Health 2015; 69(9): 880-5.

Tan SH. Unmet Healthcare Service Needs of Children With Disabilities in Penang, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Public Health 2015; 27(8 Suppl): 41S-51S.

Shiboski CH, Cohen M, Weber K, Shansky A, Malvin K, Greenblatt RM. Factors associated with use of dental services among HIV-infected and high-risk uninfected women. J Am Dent Assoc 2005; 136(9): 1242-55.

Feinberg E, Swartz K, Zaslavsky A, Gardner J, Walker DK. Family income and the impact of a children's health insurance program on reported need for health services and unmet health need. Pediatrics 2002; 109(2): E29.

Kruger JS, Kodjebacheva GD, Kunkel L, Smith KD, Kruger DJ. Caregiver financial distress, depressive symptoms and limited social capital as barriers to children's dental care in a mid-western county in the United States. Community Dent Health 2015; 32(4): 252-6.

Newacheck PW, Hung YY, Park MJ, Brindis CD, Irwin CE, Jr. Disparities in adolescent health and healthcare: Does socioeconomic status matter? Health Serv Res 2003; 38(5): 1235-52.

Hughes DC, Duderstadt KG, Soobader MP, Newacheck PW. Disparities in children's use of oral health services. Public Health Rep 2005; 120(4): 455-62.

Wu CF, Eamon MK. Does receipt of public benefits reduce material hardship in low-income families with children? Child Youth Serv Rev 2010; 32(10): 1262-70.

Huang J, Birkenmaier J, Kim Y. Job loss and unmet healthcare needs in the economic recession: Different associations by family income. Am J Public Health 2014; 104(11): e178-e183.

Chaupain-Guillot S, Guillot O. Health system characteristics and unmet care needs in Europe: an analysis based on EU-SILC data. Eur J Health Econ 2015; 16(7): 781-96.

Jang Y, Yoon H, Park NS, Chiriboga DA, Kim MT. Dental care utilization and unmet dental needs in older Korean Americans. J Aging Health 2014; 26(6): 1047-59.

Hemmeter J. Health-related unmet needs of supplemental security income youth after the age-18 redetermination. Health Serv Res 2011; 46(4): 1224-42.

Krause DD, May WL, Butler KR, Jr. Determining unmet, adequately met, and overly met needs for healthcare and services for persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mississippi. AIDS Care 2013; 25(8): 973-9.

DeVoe JE, Krois L, Stenger R. Do children in rural areas still have different access to healthcare? Results from a statewide survey of Oregon's food stamp population. J Rural Health 2009; 25(1): 1-7.

Xiang X, Lee W, Kang SW. Serious psychological distress as a barrier to dental care in community-dwelling adults in the United States. J Public Health Dent 2015; 75(2): 134-41.

Iida H, Lewis CW. Utility of a summative scale based on the Children with Special Healthcare Needs (CSHCN) Screener to identify CSHCN with special dental care needs. Matern Child Health J 2012; 16(6): 1164-72.

Fisher-Owens SA, Isong IA, Soobader MJ, Gansky SA, Weintraub JA, Platt LJ, et al. An examination of racial/ethnic disparities in children's oral health in the United States. J Public Health Dent 2013; 73(2): 166-74.

Agaku IT, Olutola BG, Adisa AO, Obadan EM, Vardavas CI. Association between unmet dental needs and school absenteeism because of illness or injury among U.S. school children and adolescents aged 6-17 years, 2011-2012. Prev Med 2015; 72: 83-8.

Iida H, Rozier RG. Mother-perceived social capital and children's oral health and use of dental care in the United States. Am J Public Health 2013; 103(3): 480-7.

Mitchell JM, Gaskin DJ. Do children receiving Supplemental Security Income who are enrolled in Medicaid fare better under a fee-for-service or comprehensive capitation model? Pediatrics 2004; 114(1): 196-204.

Lai B, Milano M, Roberts MW, Hooper SR. Unmet dental needs and barriers to dental care among children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2012; 42(7): 1294-303.

Boothroyd RA, Ware A. Impact of mental health problems on self-perceived oral health needs in a Medicaid population. Eval Health Prof 2015; 38(1): 73-93.

Slifkin RT, Silberman P, Freeman V. Moving from Medicaid to North Carolina Health Choice: Changes in access to dental care for NC children. N C Med J 2004; 65(1): 6-11.

Marcus M, Freed JR, Coulter ID, Der-Martirosian C, Cunningham W, Andersen R, et al. Perceived unmet need for oral treatment among a national population of HIV-positive medical patients: Social and clinical correlates. Am J Public Health 2000; 90(7): 1059-63.

Wallace NT, Carlson MJ, Mosen DM, Snyder JJ, Wright BJ. The individual and program impacts of eliminating Medicaid dental benefits in the Oregon Health Plan. Am J Public Health 2011; 101(11): 2144-50.

Heslin KC, Cunningham WE, Marcus M, Coulter I, Freed J, Der-Martirosian C, et al. A comparison of unmet needs for dental and medical care among persons with HIV infection receiving care in the United States. J Public Health Dent 2001; 61(1): 14-21.

Capilouto EI, Piette J, White BA, Fleishman J. Perceived need for dental care among persons living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Med Care 1991; 29(8): 745-54.

Pourat N, Andersen RM, Marcus M. Assessing the contribution of the dental care delivery system to oral healthcare disparities. J Public Health Dent 2015; 75(1): 1-9.

Bagewitz IC, Soderfeldt B, Palmqvist S, Nilner K. Dental care utilization: a study of 50- to 75-year-olds in southern Sweden. Acta Odontol Scand 2002; 60(1): 20-4.

Kenagy GP, Linsk NL, Bruce D, Warnecke R, Gordon A, Wagaw F, et al. Service utilization, service barriers, and gender among HIV-positive consumers in primary care. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2003; 17(5): 235-44.

Pau A, Croucher RE, Marcenes W. Demographic and socio-economic correlates of dental pain among adults in the United Kingdom, 1998. Br Dent J 2007; 202(9): E21-E29.

Marshman Z, Porritt J, Dyer T, Wyborn C, Godson J, Baker S. What influences the use of dental services by adults in the UK? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2012; 40(4): 306-14.

Marshman Z, Baker SR, Robinson PG. Does dental indifference influence the oral health-related quality of life of prisoners? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2014; 42(5): 470-80.

Baker SR. Applying Andersen's behavioural model to oral health: What are the contextual factors shaping perceived oral health outcomes? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 37(6): 485-94.

Herr M, Arvieu JJ, Aegerter P, Robine JM, Ankri J. Unmet healthcare needs of older people: Prevalence and predictors in a French cross-sectional survey. Eur J Public Health 2014; 24(5): 808-13.

Wang H, Norton EC, Rozier RG. Effects of the State Children's Health Insurance Program on access to dental care and use of dental services. Health Serv Res 2007; 42(4): 1544-63.

Fulda KG, Johnson KL, Hahn K, Lykens K. Do unmet needs differ geographically for children with special healthcare needs? Matern Child Health J 2013; 17(3): 505-11.

Kane D, Mosca N, Zotti M, Schwalberg R. Factors associated with access to dental care for children with special healthcare needs. J Am Dent Assoc 2008; 139(3): 326-33.

Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB, Wang JY, Salinas CF. Disparities in dental insurance coverage and dental care among US children: The National Survey of Children's Health. Pediatrics 2007; 119(Suppl 1): S12-S21.

Paschal AM, Wilroy JD, Hawley SR. Unmet needs for dental care in children with special healthcare needs. Prev Med Rep 2016; 3: 62-7.

Kenney GM, McFeeters JR, Yee JY. Preventive dental care and unmet dental needs among low-income children. Am J Public Health 2005; 95(8): 1360-6.

McKinney CM, Nelson T, Scott JM, Heaton LJ, Vaughn MG, Lewis CW. Predictors of unmet dental need in children with autism spectrum disorder: Results from a national sample. Acad Pediatr 2014; 14(6): 624-31.

Lewis CW. Dental care and children with special healthcare needs: A population-based perspective. Acad Pediatr 2009; 9(6): 420-6.

Caban-Martinez AJ, Lee DJ, Fleming LE, Arheart KL, Leblanc WG, Chung-Bridges K, et al. Dental care access and unmet dental care needs among U.S. workers: The National Health Interview Survey, 1997 to 2003. J Am Dent Assoc 2007; 138(2): 227-30.

Armfield JM, Stewart JF, Spencer AJ. The vicious cycle of dental fear: Exploring the interplay between oral health, service utilization and dental fear. BMC Oral Health 2007; 7: 1.

Ghiabi E, Matthews DC, Brillant MS. The oral health status of recent immigrants and refugees in Nova Scotia, Canada. J Immigr Minor Health 2014; 16(1): 95-101.

Patton LL, Strauss RP, McKaig RG, Porter DR, Eron JJ, Jr. Perceived oral health status, unmet needs, and barriers to dental care among HIV/AIDS patients in a North Carolina cohort: Impacts of race. J Public Health Dent 2003; 63(2): 86-91.

Ekanayake L, Perera I. Perceived need for dental care among dentate older individuals in Sri Lanka. Spec Care Dentist 2005; 25(4): 199-205.

Astrom AN, Kida IA. Perceived dental treatment need among older Tanzanian adults - a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2007; 7: 9.

Luo Y, McGrath C. Oral health status of homeless people in Hong Kong. Spec Care Dentist 2006; 26(4): 150-4.

Diu S, Gelbier S. Oral health screening of elderly people attending a community care centre. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1989; 17(4): 212-5.

Robinson PG, Nadanovsky P, Sheiham A. Can questionnaires replace clinical surveys to assess dental treatment needs of adults? J Public Health Dent 1998; 58(3): 250-3.

Ramraj C, Quinonez CR. Self-reported cost-prohibitive dental care needs among Canadians. Int J Dent Hyg 2013; 11(2): 115-20.

Marino R, Schofield M, Wright C, Calache H, Minichiello V. Self-reported and clinically determined oral health status predictors for quality of life in dentate older migrant adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008; 36(1): 85-94.

Vargas CM, Ronzio CR. Relationship between children's dental needs and dental care utilization: United States, 1988-1994. Am J Public Health 2002; 92(11): 1816-21.

Seirawan H, Sundaresan S, Mulligan R. Oral health-related quality of life and perceived dental needs in the United States. J Public Health Dent 2011; 71(3): 194-201.

Osborn M, Butler T, Barnard PD. Oral health status of prison inmates--New South Wales, Australia. Aust Dent J 2003; 48(1): 34-8.

Jones E, Shi L, Hayashi AS, Sharma R, Daly C, Ngo-Metzger Q. Access to oral healthcare: The role of federally qualified health centers in addressing disparities and expanding access. Am J Public Health 2013; 103(3): 488-93.

Ettinger RL, Warren JJ, Levy SM, Hand JS, Merchant JA, Stromquist AM. Oral health: Perceptions of need in a rural Iowa county. Spec Care Dentist 2004; 24(1): 13-21.

Hoad-Reddick G. A study to determine oral health needs of institutionalised elderly patients by non-dental healthcare workers. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991; 19(4): 233-6.

Drake CW, Beck JD, Strauss RP. The accuracy of oral self-perceptions in a dentate older population. Spec Care Dentist 1990; 10(1): 16-20.

Talekar BS, Rozier RG, Slade GD, Ennett ST. Parental perceptions of their preschool-aged children's oral health. J Am Dent Assoc 2005; 136(3): 364-72.

Ornstein KA, DeCherrie L, Gluzman R, Scott ES, Kansal J, Shah T, et al. Significant unmet oral health needs of homebound elderly adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2015; 63(1): 151-7.

Balappanavar AY, Sardana V, Nagesh L, Ankola AV, Kakodkar P, Hebbal M. Questionnaire vs clinical surveys: The right choice?--A cross-sectional comparative study. Indian J Dent Res 2011; 22(3): 494.

Luciano M, Overman VP, Frasier PY, Platin E. Survey of oral health practices among adults in a North Carolina Hispanic population. J Dent Hyg 2008; 82(2): 20.

Arrow P. Service Use and Perceived Need among an Aboriginal Population in Western Australia. J Healthcare Poor Underserved 2016; 27(1 Suppl): 90-100.

Gift HC, Atchison KA, Drury TF. Perceptions of the natural dentition in the context of multiple variables. J Dent Res 1998; 77(7): 1529-38.

Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Umoh A, Ojehanon PI, Akhionbare O, Okechukwu R, et al. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries. Libyan J Med 2010; 5.

Rungsiyanont S, Vacharotayangul P, Lam-Ubol A, Ananworanich J, Phanuphak P, Phanuphak N. Perceived dental needs and attitudes toward dental treatments in HIV-infected Thais. AIDS Care 2012; 24(12): 1584-90.

Lodi G, Sardella A, Bez C, Demarosi F, Cicardi M, Carrassi A. Dental experience and self-perceived dental care needs of patients with angioedema. Spec Care Dentist 2001; 21(1): 27-31.

Stiefel DJ, Truelove EL, Martin MD, Mandel LS. Comparison of incoming dental school patients with and without disabilities. Spec Care Dentist 1997; 17(5): 161-8.

Leroy R, Declerck D. Objective and subjective oral healthcare needs among adults with various disabilities. Clin Oral Investig 2013; 17(8): 1869-78.

Yazdani R, Vehkalahti MM, Nouri M, Murtomaa H. Oral health and treatment needs among 15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran. Community Dent Health 2008; 25(4): 221-5.

Atchison KA, Davidson PL, Nakazono TT. Predisposing, enabling, and need for dental treatment characteristics of ICS-II USA ethnically diverse groups. Adv Dent Res 1997; 11(2): 223-34.

Sipila K, Napankangas R, Kononen M, Alanen P, Suominen AL. The role of dental loss and denture status on clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil 2013; 40(1): 15-23.

Colussi CF, De Freitas SF, Calvo MC. The prosthetic need WHO index: A comparison between self-perception and professional assessment in an elderly population. Gerodontology 2009; 26(3): 187-92.

Tervonen T, Knuuttila M. Awareness of dental disorders and discrepancy between "objective" and "subjective" dental treatment needs. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988; 16(6): 345-8.

Shigli K, Hebbal M, Angadi GS. Attitudes towards replacement of teeth among patients at the Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, India. J Dent Educ 2007; 71(11): 1467-75.

Walter MH, Wolf BH, Rieger C, Boening KW. Prosthetic treatment need in a representative German sample. J Oral Rehabil 2001; 28(8): 708-16.

Teofilo LT, Leles CR. Patients' self-perceived impacts and prosthodontic needs at the time and after tooth loss. Braz Dent J 2007; 18(2): 91-6.

Tuominen R, Rajala M, Sintonen H, Paunio I. Normative and subjective need and utilization of complete denture services. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1984; 12(3): 165-8.

Ariga P, Bridgitte A, Rangarajan V, Philip JM. Edentulousness, denture wear and denture needs of the elderly in rural South India. Iran J Public Health 2012; 41(7): 40-3.

Kronstrom M, Palmqvist S, Soderfeldt B, Vigild M. Subjective need for implant treatment among middle-aged people in Sweden and Denmark. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2002; 4(1): 11-5.

Palmqvist S, Soderfeldt B, Arnbjerg D. Subjective need for implant dentistry in a Swedish population aged 45-69 years. Clin Oral Implants Res 1991; 2(3): 99-102.

Palmqvist S, Soderfeldt B, Arnbjerg D. Influences of some background factors on the subjective need for dental implants in a Swedish population. Acta Odontol Scand 1993; 51(1): 9-14.

Nagarajan S, Pushpanjali K. The relationship of malocclusion as assessed by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) with perceptions of aesthetics, function, speech and treatment needs among 14- to 15-year-old schoolchildren of Bangalore, India. Oral Health Prev Dent 2010; 8(3): 221-8.

Xiao-Ting L, Tang Y, Huang XL, Wan H, Chen YX. Factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need and culture-related differences among Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants. Int J Oral Sci 2010; 2(3): 149-57.

Christopherson EA, Briskie D, Inglehart MR. Objective, subjective, and self-assessment of preadolescent orthodontic treatment need--a function of age, gender, and ethnic/racial background? J Public Health Dent 2009; 69(1): 9-17.

Howell S, Morel G. Orthodontic treatment needs in Westmead Hospital Dental Clinical School. Aust Dent J 1993; 38(5): 367-72.

de Oliveira CM, Sheiham A, Tsakos G, O'Brien KD. Oral health-related quality of life and the IOTN index as predictors of children's perceived needs and acceptance for orthodontic treatment. Br Dent J 2008; 204(7): 1-5.

Freitas CV, Souza JG, Mendes DC, Pordeus IA, Jones KM, Martins AM. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: Evaluation based on public health. Rev Paul Pediatr 2015; 33(2): 204-10. [In Portuguese].

Tuominen ML, Tuominen RJ. Factors associated with subjective need for orthodontic treatment among Finnish university applicants. Acta Odontol Scand 1994; 52(2): 106-10.

Stenvik A, Espeland L, Mathisen A. A longitudinal study on subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 1997; 19(1): 85-92.

Christopherson EA, Briskie D, Inglehart MR. Preadolescent orthodontic treatment need: Objective and subjective provider assessments and patient self-reports. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 135(4 Suppl): S80-S86.

Dias PF, Gleiser R. Orthodontic concerns of Brazilian children and their parents compared to the normative treatment need. J Oral Sci 2010; 52(1): 101-7.

Chu CH, Choy BH, Lo EC. Occlusion and orthodontic treatment demand among Chinese young adults in Hong Kong. Oral Health Prev Dent 2009; 7(1): 83-91.

Burgersdijk R, Truin GJ, Frankenmolen F, Kalsbeek H, van't Hof M, Mulder J. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of 15-74-year-old Dutch adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991; 19(2): 64-7.

Badran SA, Sabrah AH, Hadidi SA, Al-Khateeb S. Effect of socioeconomic status on normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need. Angle Orthod 2014; 84(4): 588-93.

Spalj S, Lajnert V, Ivankovic L. The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire--translation and cross-cultural validation in Croatia. Qual Life Res 2014; 23(4): 1267-71.

Kerosuo H, Abdulkarim E, Kerosuo E. Subjective need and orthodontic treatment experience in a Middle East country providing free orthodontic services: A questionnaire survey. Angle Orthod 2002; 72(6): 565-70.

Tuominen ML, Nystrom M, Tuominen RJ. Subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need among orthodontically treated and untreated Finnish adolescents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995; 23(5): 286-90.

Sheats RD, Gilbert GH, Wheeler TT, King GJ. Pilot study comparing parents' and third-grade schoolchildren's attitudes toward braces and perceived need for braces. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995; 23(1): 36-43.

Searcy VL, Chisick MC. Perceived, desired, and normatively determined orthodontic treatment needs in male US Army recruits. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994; 22(6): 437-40.

Kragt L, Tiemeier H, Wolvius EB, Ongkosuwito EM. Measuring oral health-related quality of life in orthodontic patients with a short version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). J Public Health Dent 2016; 76(2): 105-12.

Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Factors determining perceived orthodontic treatment need in adolescents of Swedish and immigrant background. Eur J Orthod 2009; 31(1): 95-102.

Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Halling A. Self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and culturally related differences among adolescents in Sweden. Eur J Orthod 2005; 27(2): 140-7.

Mandall NA, McCord JF, Blinkhorn AS, Worthington HV, O'Brien KD. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion and oral self-perceptions in 14-15-year-old Asian and Caucasian children in greater Manchester. Eur J Orthod 2000; 22(2): 175-83.

Tsakos G, Bernabe E, O'Brien K, Sheiham A, de Oliveira C. Comparison of the self-administered and interviewer-administered modes of the child-OIDP. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008; 6: 40.

Oshagh M, Salehi P, Pakshir H, Bazyar L, Rakhshan V. Associations between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment needs in young-adult dental patients. Korean J Orthod 2011; 41(6): 440-6.

Momeni DS, Salehi P. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran. Eur J Orthod 2010; 32(5): 530-4.

Grzywacz I. The value of the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need in the assessment of subjective orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 2003; 25(1): 57-63.

Shue-Te YM, Koochek AR, Vlaskalic V, Boyd R, Richmond S. The relationship of 2 professional occlusal indexes with patients' perceptions of aesthetics, function, speech, and orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2000; 118(4): 421-8.

Koochek AR, Yeh MS, Rolfe B, Richmond S. The relationship between Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need, and patients' perceptions of malocclusion: A study in general dental practice. Br Dent J 2001; 191(6): 325-9.

Ng'ang'a PM, Stenvik A, Ohito F, Ogaard B. The need and demand for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-olds in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand 1997; 55(5): 325-8.

Nobile CG, Pavia M, Fortunato L, Angelillo IF. Prevalence and factors related to malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Italy. Eur J Public Health 2007; 17(6): 637-41.

Onyeaso CO, Arowojolu MO. Perceived, desired, and normatively determined orthodontic treatment needs among orthodontically untreated Nigerian adolescents. West Afr J Med 2003; 22(1): 5-9.

Pratelli P, Gelbier S, Gibbons DE. Parental perceptions and attitudes on orthodontic care. Br J Orthod 1998; 25(1): 41-6.

Liepa A, Urtane I, Richmond S, Dunstan F. Orthodontic treatment need in Latvia. Eur J Orthod 2003; 25(3): 279-84.

Soh J, Sandham A. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males. Angle Orthod 2004; 74(6): 769-73.

Chew MT, Aw AK. Appropriateness of orthodontic referrals: Self-perceived and normative treatment needs of patients referred for orthodontic consultation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002; 30(6): 449-54.

Svedstrom-Oristo AL, Pietila T, Pietila I, Tolvanen M, Varrela J, Alanen P. An analysis of residual orthodontic treatment need in municipal health centres. Eur J Orthod 2015; 37(4): 398-402.

Helm S, Kreiborg S, Solow B. A 15-year follow-up study of 30-year-old Danes with regard to orthodontic treatment experience and perceived need for treatment in a region without organized orthodontic care. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1983; 11(4): 199-204.

Spalj S, Slaj M, Athanasiou AE, Govorko DK, Slaj M. The unmet orthodontic treatment need of adolescents and influencing factors for not seeking orthodontic therapy. Coll Antropol 2014; 38(Suppl 2): 173-80.

Hirvinen H, Heikinheimo K, Svedstrom-Oristo AL. The objective and subjective outcome of orthodontic care in one municipal health center. Acta Odontol Scand 2012; 70(1): 36-41.

Baubiniene D, Sidlauskas A. The factors effecting satisfaction of dental appearance and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment in 10-11 and 14-15 year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren. Stomatologija 2009; 11(3): 97-102.

Tickle M, Kay EJ, Bearn D. Socio-economic status and orthodontic treatment need. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1999; 27(6): 413-8.

de Almeida AB, Leite IC. Orthodontic treatment need for Brazilian schoolchildren: A study using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Dental Press J Orthod 2013; 18(1): 103-9.

Badran SA, Al-Khateeb S. Factors influencing the uptake of orthodontic treatment. J Public Health Dent 2013; 73(4): 339-44.

Ahmed B, Gilthorpe MS, Bedi R. Agreement between normative and perceived orthodontic need amongst deprived multiethnic school children in London. Clin Orthod Res 2001; 4(2): 65-71.

Svedstrom-Oristo AL, Pietila T, Pietila I, Vahlberg T, Alanen P, Varrela J. Acceptability of dental appearance in a group of Finnish 16- to 25-year-olds. Angle Orthod 2009; 79(3): 479-83.

Onyeaso CO, Aderinokun GA. The relationship between dental aesthetic index (DAI) and perceptions of aesthetics, function and speech amongst secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Int J Paediatr Dent 2003; 13(5): 336-41.

Kok YV, Mageson P, Harradine NW, Sprod AJ. Comparing a quality of life measure and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) in assessing orthodontic treatment need and concern. J Orthod 2004; 31(4): 312-8.

Fisher MA, Taylor GW, Shelton BJ, Debanne SM. Predictive values of self-reported periodontal need: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. J Periodontol 2007; 78(8): 1551-60.

Kamppi A, Pakkila J, Tanner T, Patinen P, Tjaderhane L, Anttonen V. Validity of a questionnaire in estimating restorative treatment need among young adults. Community Dent Health 2014; 31(4): 245-50.

Tortopidis D, Hatzikyriakos A, Kokoti M, Menexes G, Tsiggos N. Evaluation of the relationship between subjects' perception and professional assessment of esthetic treatment needs. J Esthet Restor Dent 2007; 19(3): 154-62.

Falcon HC, Richardson P, Shaw MJ, Bulman JS, Smith BG. Developing an index of restorative dental treatment need. Br Dent J 2001; 190(9): 479-86.

De Kanter RJ, Kayser AF, Battistuzzi PG, Truin GJ, Van 't Hof MA. Demand and need for treatment of craniomandibular dysfunction in the Dutch adult population. J Dent Res 1992; 71(9): 1607-12.

Hongxing L, Astrom AN, List T, Nilsson IM, Johansson A. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population. J Oral Rehabil 2016; 43(4): 241-8.

Eklund SA, Burt BA. Risk factors for total tooth loss in the United States; longitudinal analysis of national data. J Public Health Dent 1994; 54(1): 5-14.

Juggins KJ, Nixon F, Cunningham SJ. Patient- and clinician-perceived need for orthognathic surgery. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005; 128(6): 697-702.

Listl S. Income-related inequalities in dental service utilization by Europeans aged 50+. J Dent Res 2011; 90(6): 717-23.

Okullo I, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O. Social inequalities in oral health and in use of oral healthcare services among adolescents in Uganda. Int J Paediatr Dent 2004; 14(5): 326-35.

Kalton G, Schuman H. The effect of the question on survey responses: A review. J R Stat Soc Ser A 1982; 145(1): 42-73.

Hochstim JR. A Critical comparison of three strategies of collecting data from households. J Am Stat Assoc 1967; 62(319): 976-89.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Oral Health and Oral Epidemiology

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.