BACKGROUND AND AIM: The effects of xerostomia on oral health have been studied for decades; however, the prevalence of this disorder in the general population remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of xerostomia in the population of Kerman, Iran. METHODS: A total of 1010 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Study volunteers completed a standardized questionnaire regarding demographic data, history of systemic disease, use of medication, cigarette smoking, and etcetera. The Fox questionnaire was also completed to diagnose xerostomia. RESULTS: The prevalence of xerostomia in this study was 55% (59.9% among men and 49.9% among women). The mean age of the study population was 34.7 ± 12.1. 21.5% of cases had a systemic disease and 19% reported taking medication. Moreover, 25.9% of the participants (30% men and 4.6% women) smoked cigarettes or other tobacco products. Systemic disease, medication, and the use of tobacco products and opiates were found to be significant risk factors for xerostomia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of xerostomia in our study was higher than that reported in other populations. Smoking and medication were significant risk factors for xerostomia.