The frequency of using different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old‎ children

Document Type: Original Article(s)


1 Professor, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center AND Kerman Social ‎Determinants on Oral Health Research Center AND ‎Department of Pediatric ‎Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, ‎Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Operative Dentistry, School of ‎Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, ‎Iran

3 Resident, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, ‎Iran

5 Student of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical ‎Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sucking of some types of a pacifier may be a risk factor for mal-development of orofacial structures and malocclusion. This study assessed the prevalence of using of different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children in Kerman, Iran.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 mothers interviewed at 20 specialized private pediatric offices in Kerman. The mothers had 1-24 months old children. A checklist includes items about pacifier sucking, bottle feeding habits, as well as mothers’ ability to recognize different kinds of available pacifier and bottle nipple was used.RESULTS: The rate of pacifier-sucking was 37.3%, and use of bottle feeding was 42.3%, and among of the users, 24.0 and 35.7% were used orthodontic (functional) types of pacifier and bottle nipple respectively. However, only 28.7% of mothers had adequate ability to recognize orthodontic pacifier and bottle nipple.CONCLUSION: The rates of using orthodontic kind of pacifier and bottle nipple were low, and a few mothers had adequate ability to recognize their differences.


  1. Poureslami HR. Breastfeeding and dentofacial developmental. Journal of Islamic Dental Association of Iran 1998; 10(1-2): 79-88. [In Persian].
  2. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician 2009; 79(8): 681-5.
  3. Degan VV, Puppin-Rontani RM. Prevalence of pacifier-sucking habits and successful methods to eliminate them--a preliminary study. J Dent Child (Chic) 2004; 71(2): 148-51.
  4. Adair SM, Milano M, Dushku JC. Evaluation of the effects of orthodontic pacifiers on the primary dentitions of 24- to 59-month-old children: preliminary study. Pediatr Dent 1992; 14(1): 13-8.
  5. Mitchell EA, Blair PS, L'Hoir MP. Should pacifiers be recommended to prevent sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics 2006; 117(5): 1755-8.
  6. Nelson EA, Yu LM, Williams S. International child care practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use. J Hum Lact 2005; 21(3): 289-95.
  7. Jahanbin A, Mokhber N, Jabbarimani A. Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits among Iranian girls. East Mediterr Health J 2010; 16(11): 1143-7.
  8. Farsi NM, Salama FS. Sucking habits in Saudi children: prevalence, contributing factors and effects on the primary dentition. Pediatr Dent 1997; 19(1): 28-33.
  9. Warren JJ, Levy SM, Kirchner HL, Nowak AJ, Bergus GR. Pacifier use and the occurrence of otitis media in the first year of life. Pediatr Dent 2001; 23(2): 103-7.
  10. Adair S, Milano M, Lorenzo L, Russell C. Effects of current and former pacifier use on the dentition of 24- to 59-month-olcdh ildren. Pediatric Dentistry 1995; 17: 437-44.