The level of evidence of articles published in Iranian Endodontic Journal in 3 years (2007, 2012 and 2013)

Document Type: Original Article(s)


1 Resident, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Endodontology Research Center AND PhD Candidate, Department of Oral Epidemiology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endodontists have the opportunity to apply relevant research findings to care their patients using the principles and methods of evidence-based treatment. The best level of evidence can be used to inform decisions regarding care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence and study the design of all the articles published in Iranian Endodontic Journal in years 2007, 2012 and 2013.METHODS: We reviewed all articles published in 2007, 2012 and 2013 in the Iranian Endodontic Journal. These articles were classified according to the level of evidence (LOE) using Oxford Scale from 0 to 5 and type of the study. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher’s exact test. Significant level was set at 0.05.RESULTS: Frequency of articles with LOE was 117, that 5 papers were level 1 (4.2%), 1 level 2 (0.9%), 10 level 3 (8.5%), 1 level 4 (0.9%), and 3 level 5 (2.5%); 97 articles (83.0%) were identified as LOE 0 or non-evidence. Comparison of the LOE of Iranian endodontic journal in 3 years did not reveal statistically significant differences between the published articles (P = 0.14).CONCLUSION: It appears that few high level of evidence-based articles have been achieved in 3 years related to endodontic subjects. Hence, journals, authors, and editors should all cooperate to achieve high-LOE articles.


  1. Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ 1996; 312(7023): 71-2.
  2. Garfield E. How can impact factors be improved? BMJ 1996; 313(7054): 411-3.
  3. Garfield E. Journal impact factor: a brief review. CMAJ 1999; 161(8): 979-80.
  4. Garfield E. Citation indexes for science; a new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Science 1955; 122(3159): 108-11.
  5. Garfield E. The history and meaning of the journal impact factor. JAMA 2006; 295(1): 90-3.
  6. Gluud LL, Sorensen TI, Gotzsche PC, Gluud C. The journal impact factor as a predictor of trial quality and outcomes: cohort study of hepatobiliary randomized clinical trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100(11): 2431-5.
  7. Torabinejad M, Bahjri K. Essential elements of evidenced-based endodontics: steps involved in conducting clinical research. J Endod 2005; 31(8): 563-9.
  8. American Dental Association (ADA). Clinical practice guidelines [Online]. [cited 2013]; Available from: URL:
  9. Wong J. Extending evidence-based dentistry beyond clinical trials: implications for materials research in endodontics. Braz J Oral Sci 2003; 2(5): 227-32.
  10. Hill N, Frappier-Davignon L, Morrison B. The periodic health examination. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Can Med Assoc J 1979; 121(9): 1193-254.
  11. Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Goldberg RJ. Clinical recommendations using levels of evidence for antithrombotic agents. Chest 1995; 108(4 Suppl): 227S-30S.
  12. Sackett DL. Rules of evidence and clinical recommendations on the use of antithrombotic agents. Chest 1989; 95(2 Suppl): 2S-4S.
  13. Rothoerl RD, Klier J, Woertgen C, Brawanski A. Level of evidence and citation index in current neurosurgical publications. Neurosurg Rev 2003; 26(4): 257-61.
  14. Lau SL, Samman N. Levels of evidence and journal impact factor in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 36(1): 1-5.
  15. Torabinejad M, Kutsenko D, Machnick TK, Ismail A, Newton CW. Levels of evidence for the outcome of nonsurgical endodontic treatment. J Endod 2005; 31(9): 637-46.
  16. Shafiei L, Shahravan A. The level of evidence in two leading endodontic journals. Iran Endod J 2013; 8(1): 18-21.
  17. Asgary S, Sabbagh S, Eghbal MJ. Published endodontic articles in pubmed-indexed journals from Iran. Iran Endod J 2012; 7(1): 1-4.
  18. Proescholdt MA, Macher C, Woertgen C, Brawanski A. Level of evidence in the literature concerning brain tumor resection. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005; 107(2): 95-8.
  19. Kyzas PA. Evidence-based oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 66(5): 973-86.
  20. Paik S, Sechrist C, Torabinejad M. Levels of evidence for the outcome of endodontic retreatment. J Endod 2004; 30(11): 745-50.
  21. Perrier A. Evidence-based medicine and critical care. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1999; 129(43): 1572-82.
  22. Navabi N, Shahravan A, Modaberi A. Reporting of ethical considerations associated with clinical trials published in Iranian dental journals between 2001 and 2011. Iran J Public Health 2013; 42(6): 594-601.
  23. Habib Agahi R, Navabi N, Shahravan A, Ghassemi A. Critical appraisal of reporting randomized clinical trials published in Iranian dental journals during 2003-2010. J Dent (Tehran) 2014; 11(3): 310-8.