Evaluation of X-ray protective shielding used in dental offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2014

Document Type: Original Article(s)

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Endodontic, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center AND Kerman Social Determinants on Oral Health Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Protective equipment, such as lead aprons and thyroid shields, is effective in reducing patient radiation. This study was conducted for evaluation the use of thyroid shields and lead aprons in dental offices, in Kerman, Iran, in June 2014.METHODS: In this descriptive-analytical study, 106 dental offices with active X-ray machines were evaluated in Kerman. The information was recorded on a data sheet consisting of eight questions in three fields of the rate of the use of lead aprons, thyroid shields and taking part in radiation protection courses. Data were evaluated using frequency distribution and chi-squared test.RESULTS: In this study, 12.3% of clinics were equipped with lead aprons but only 5.7% used them for all the patients. Only 10.4% of Kerman Dental Clinics had thyroid shields. Approximately, 9.7% of Kerman dentists had participated in continuous retraining courses on radiation protection. There was a significant relationship between clinics equipped with lead aprons with more job experience.CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rate of the use of lead aprons and thyroid shields in dental clinics equipped with X-ray machines in Kerman is not sufficient and is far from the international standards. Therefore, it is suggested that radiation protection equipment be promoted and oral and dental radiologists be responsible for the use of such equipment in their clinics.

Keywords


  1. Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada. Radiation protection in dentistry - recommended safety procedures for the use of dental x-ray equipment - Safety Code 30. Ottawa, ON: Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada; 1999.
  2. Lam EWN. Considerations for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry [Online]. [cited 2011]; Available from: URL: http://www.rcdso.org/Assets/DOCUMENTS/Quality_Assurance/PEAK_Articles/PEAK_Consideration_for_the_use_of_ionizing_radiation_in_dentistry.PDF
  3. Okano T, Sur J. Radiation dose and protection in dentistry. Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2010; 46(2): 112-21.
  4. National Radiological Protection Board. Guidance Notes for Dental Practitioners on the Safe Use of X-Ray Equipment [Online]. [cited 2011 Jun]; Available from: URL: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/337178/misc_pub_DentalGuidanceNotes.pdf
  5. Alcaraz M, Navarro C, Vicente V, Canteras M. Dose reduction of intraoral dental radiography in Spain. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006; 35(4): 295-8.
  6. Ilguy D, Ilguy M, Dincer S, Bayirli G. Survey of dental radiological practice in Turkey. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2005; 34(4): 222-7.
  7. Ludlow JB, Platin E. Densitometric comparisons of Ultra-speed, Ektaspeed, and Ektaspeed Plus intraoral films for two processing conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995; 79(1): 105-13.
  8. The use of dental radiographs: update and recommendations. J Am Dent Assoc 2006; 137(9): 1304-12.
  9. Kaviani F, Esmaeili F, Balayi E, Pourfattollah N. Evaluation of X-ray protection methods used in dental offices in Tabriz in 2005-2006. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2007; 1(1): 49-52.
  10. Davies C, Grange S, Trevor MM. Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England. Radiography 2005; 11(4): 255-61.
  11. Goodarzi Pour D, Ebrahimi Moghaddam S. Evaluation of x-ray protective measurements in intraoral radiography equipped centers in Yazd. J Dent Med Tehran Univ Med Sci 2004; 17(4): 61-7. [In Persian].
  12. Badrian H, Sheikhi M, Abdinian M. Knowledge, attitudes and performance of dental practitioners in Isfahan-Iran about biologic effects of ionizing radiation and protection against them in 2011. J Mashad Dent Sch 2013; 37(1): 19-26.
  13. Nisha VA, Parthiban J, Sarumathi T, Hemalatha VT, Amudhan A. Radiation protection in dental radiology- the safe use of radiographs in dental practice. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2014; 11(1): 263-6.
  14. Zangoie Booshehri M, Ezoddini-Ardakani F, Nozari H. Evaluation of dentists' awareness about personnel and patients national protection in Yazd dental office. Health 2012; 4(8): 490-2.
  15. Tavakkoli MA, Nikneshan S, Varshowsaz M. Protection against X-Ray in dental clinics of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 1381. J Dent Sch Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci 2004; 22(2): 197-202. [In Persian].
  16. Geist JR, Katz JO. Radiation dose-reduction techniques in North American dental schools. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002; 93(4): 496-505.
  17. Eskandarlou A, Sani KG, Rostampour N. Observance of radiation protection principles in Iranian dental schools. J Res Med Sci 2010; 15(5): 292-3.
  18. Helminen SE, Vehkalahti M, Murtomaa H, Kekki P, Ketomaki TM. Quality evaluation of oral health record-keeping for Finnish young adults. Acta Odontol Scand 1998; 56(5): 288-92.