Document Type : Review Article(s)
Professor, “Dr. Keisaburo Miyata” Advanced Studies and Research Center in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Toluca, Mexico
MSc Student, “Dr. Keisaburo Miyata” Advanced Studies and Research Center in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Toluca, Mexico
PhD Student, “Dr. Keisaburo Miyata” Advanced Studies and Research Center in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Toluca, Mexico
Professor, Academic Area of Dentistry, Institute of Health Sciences, Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Hidalgo, Pachuca City, Mexico
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In this manuscript, fluoride releasing dental materials controlling demineralization in fixed orthodontic patients, and the current strategies to prevent white spots were evaluated.METHODS: General literature review was carried out in SciVerse ScienceDirect databases. The search strategy included the terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) created by National Library of Medicine.RESULTS: 44 relevant studies were included and the respective data were extracted. Many studies showed new alternatives for the treatment of white spot lesions by the use of orthodontic appliances.CONCLUSION: Patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment should be instructed in a proper brushing technique using a fluoride containing toothpaste, and high risk patients should be bonded with fluoride releasing agent. Additionally, it is recommended to apply fluoride varnish periodically during orthodontic treatment.
- Cohen WJ, Wiltshire WA, Dawes C, Lavelle CL. Long-term in vitro fluoride release and rerelease from orthodontic bonding materials containing fluoride. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003; 124(5): 571-6.
- Hara AT, Magalhaes CS, Serra MC, Rodrigues AL Jr. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative systems associated with dentifrices on root dentin. J Dent 2002; 30(5-6): 205-12.
- Lara-Carrillo E, Montiel-Bastida NM, Sanchez-Perez L, Alanis-Tavira J. Effect of orthodontic treatment on saliva, plaque and the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010; 15(6): e924-e929.
- Meeran NA. Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention. J Orthod Sci 2013; 2(3): 73-86.
- Restrepo M, Bussaneli DG, Jeremias F, Cordeiro RC, MagalhÄes AC, Palomari Spolidorio DM, et al. Control of white spot lesion adjacent to orthodontic bracket with use of fluoride varnish or chlorhexidine gel. The Scientific World Journal 2015; 2015: 218452.
- Nalbantgil D, Oztoprak MO, Cakan DG, Bozkurt K, Arun T. Prevention of demineralization around orthodontic brackets using two different fluoride varnishes. Eur J Dent 2013; 7(1): 41-7.
- Singh S, Singh SP, Goyal A, Utreja AK, Jena AK. Effects of various remineralizing agents on the outcome of post-orthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs): A clinical trial. Prog Orthod 2016; 17(1): 25.
- Caves GR, Millett DT, Creanor SL, Foye RH, Gilmour WH. Fluoride release from orthodontic band cements-a comparison of two in vitro models. J Dent 2003; 31(1): 19-24.
- Itota T, Carrick TE, Rusby S, Al-Naimi OT, Yoshiyama M, McCabe JF. Determination of fluoride ions released from resin-based dental materials using ion-selective electrode and ion chromatograph. J Dent 2004; 32(2): 117-22.
- Itota T, Nakabo S, Narukami T, Tashiro Y, Torii Y, McCabe JF, et al. Effect of two-step adhesive systems on inhibition of secondary caries around fluoride-releasing resin composite restorations in root dentine. J Dent 2005; 33(2): 147-54.
- Kimura T, Dunn WJ, Taloumis LJ. Effect of fluoride varnish on the in vitro bond strength of orthodontic brackets using a self-etching primer system. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004; 125(3): 351-6.
- Staley RN, Mack SJ, Wefel JS, Vargas MA, Jakobsen JR. Effect of brushing on fluoride release from 3 bracket adhesives. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004; 126(3): 331-6.
- Sun FC, Engelman EE, McGuire JA, Kosmoski G, Carratello L, Ricci-Nittel D, et al. Impact of an anticaries mouthrinse on in vitro remineralization and microbial control. Int J Dent 2014; 2014: 982071.
- Maupome G, Shulman JD, Medina-Solis CE, Ladeinde O. Is there a relationship between asthma and dental caries?: A critical review of the literature. J Am Dent Assoc 2010; 141(9): 1061-74.
- Cury JA, Tenuta LM. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use. Braz Oral Res 2014; 28(Spec No): 1-7.
- Souza DC, Maltz M, Hashizume LN. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. Braz Oral Res 2014; 28.
- Sundararaj D, Venkatachalapathy S, Tandon A, Pereira A. Critical evaluation of incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: A meta-analysis. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015; 5(6): 433-9.
- Chitnis D, Dunn WJ, Gonzales DA. Comparison of in-vitro bond strengths between resin-modified glass ionomer, polyacid-modified composite resin, and giomer adhesive systems. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 129(3): 330-6.
- Itota T, Al-Naimi OT, Carrick TE, Yoshiyama M, McCabe JF. Fluoride release from aged resin composites containing fluoridated glass filler. Dent Mater 2005; 21(11): 1033-8.
- Arhun N, Arman A, Sesen C, Karabulut E, Korkmaz Y, Gokalp S. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets with 3 self-etch adhesives. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 129(4): 547-50.
- Wiegand A, Buchalla W, Attin T. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials-fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation. Dent Mater 2007; 23(3): 343-62.
- Cacciafesta V, Sfondrini MF, Tagliani P, Klersy C. In-vitro fluoride release rates from 9 orthodontic bonding adhesives. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 132(5): 656-62.
- Al Shamsi AH, Cunningham JL, Lamey PJ, Lynch E. Three-dimensional measurement of residual adhesive and enamel loss on teeth after debonding of orthodontic brackets: An in-vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 131(3): 301-15.
- Peris AR, Mitsui FH, Lobo MM, Bedran-russo AK, Marchi GM. Adhesive systems and secondary caries formation: Assessment of dentin bond strength, caries lesions depth and fluoride release. Dent Mater 2007; 23(3): 308-16.
- Xu HH, Moreau JL, Sun L, Chow LC. Strength and fluoride release characteristics of a calcium fluoride based dental nanocomposite. Biomaterials 2008; 29(32): 4261-7.
- Shinohara MS, De Goes MF, Schneider LF, Ferracane JL, Pereira PN, Di Hipolito V, et al. Fluoride-containing adhesive: Durability on dentin bonding. Dent Mater 2009; 25(11): 1383-91.
- Tuncer C, Tuncer BB, Ulusoy C. Effect of fluoride-releasing light-cured resin on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 135(1): 14-6.
- Chin MY, Sandham A, Rumachik EN, Ruben JL, Huysmans MC. Fluoride release and cariostatic potential of orthodontic adhesives with and without daily fluoride rinsing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 136(4): 547-53.
- Paschos E, Kurochkina N, Huth KC, Hansson CS, Rudzki-Janson I. Failure rate of brackets bonded with antimicrobial and fluoride-releasing, self-etching primer and the effect on prevention of enamel demineralization. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 135(5): 613-20.
- Reicheneder CA, Gedrange T, Lange A, Baumert U, Proff P. Shear and tensile bond strength comparison of various contemporary orthodontic adhesive systems: An in-vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 135(4): 422-6.
- Saku S, Kotake H, Scougall-Vilchis RJ, Ohashi S, Hotta M, Horiuchi S, et al. Antibacterial activity of composite resin with glass-ionomer filler particles. Dent Mater J 2010; 29(2): 193-8.
- Ahn SJ, Lim BS, Lee SJ. Surface characteristics of orthodontic adhesives and effects on streptococcal adhesion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010; 137(4): 489-95.
- Benson PE. Fluoride-containing materials and the prevention of demineralization during orthodontic treatmentïwhich research method should we now use? Semin Orthod 2010; 16(4): 293-301.
- Chatzistavrou E, Eliades T, Zinelis S, Athanasiou AE, Eliades G. Fluoride release from an orthodontic glass ionomer adhesive in vitro and enamel fluoride uptake in vivo. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010; 137(4): 458.
- Justus R, Cubero T, Ondarza R, Morales F. A New technique with sodium hypochlorite to increase bracket shear bond strength of fluoride-releasing resin-modified glass ionomer cements: Comparing shear bond strength of two adhesive systems with enamel surface deproteinization before etching. Semin Orthod 2010; 16(1): 66-77.
- Lim BS, Lee SJ, Lim YJ, Ahn SJ. Effects of periodic fluoride treatment on fluoride ion release from fresh orthodontic adhesives. J Dent 2011; 39(11): 788-94.
- Pandit S, Kim GR, Lee MH, Jeon JG. Evaluation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on fluoride releasing and non-fluoride releasing resin composites. J Dent 2011; 39(11): 780-7.
- Dickens SH, Flaim GM, Takagi S. Mechanical properties and biochemical activity of remineralizing resin-based Ca-PO4 cements. Dent Mater 2003; 19(6): 558-66.
- Vilchis RJ, Hotta Y, Yamamoto K. Examination of six orthodontic adhesives with electron microscopy, hardness tester and energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. Angle Orthod 2008; 78(4): 655-61.
- Rogers S, Chadwick B, Treasure E. Fluoride-containing orthodontic adhesives and decalcification in patients with fixed appliances: A systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010; 138(4): 390-8.
- Sudjalim TR, Woods MG, Manton DJ, Reynolds EC. Prevention of demineralization around orthodontic brackets in vitro. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 131(6): 705-9.
- Uysal T, Amasyali M, Ozcan S, Koyuturk AE, Sagdic D. Effect of antibacterial monomer-containing adhesive on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets: An in-vivo study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 139(5): 650-6.
- Diamanti I, Koletsi-Kounari H, Mamai-Homata E, Vougiouklakis G. Effect of fluoride and of calcium sodium phosphosilicate toothpastes on pre-softened dentin demineralization and remineralization in vitro. J Dent 2010; 38(8): 671-7.
- Miura KK, Ito IY, Enoki C, Elias AM, Matsumoto MA. Anticariogenic effect of fluoride-releasing elastomers in orthodontic patients. Braz Oral Res 2007; 21(3): 228-33.
- Banks PA, Chadwick SM, Asher-McDade C, Wright JL. Fluoride-releasing elastomerics-a prospective controlled clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 2000; 22(4): 401-7.