Evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of obstetricians and midwives regarding oral health in pregnant women

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Health Education, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 - Dentist, Private Practice, Yazd, Iran

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Poor oral health is known as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth. Few studies have evaluated the knowledge and behaviors of healthcare professionals about oral health during pregnancy and the possible role of periodontal diseases in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the knowledge and practice behaviors of obstetricians and midwives about oral health.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a self-structured questionnaire was randomly distributed among 80 obstetricians and midwives in Yazd, Iran. For analyzing data, chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation test were used.
RESULTS: 80 women with an average age of 47 years participated in the study. 70.0% of the subjects selected the reversible gingival inflammation as the definition of gingivitis and 43.8% of them considered dental plaque as the main cause of periodontal diseases. 58.8% of the subjects believed that gingivitis occurs during pregnancy. 90.0% considered the second trimester of pregnancy as the safest time for dental treatments. Only 38.8% of the participants explained to their patients about the importance of oral health. There was no relationship between age and the knowledge level and behavior, but the attitude about the oral health improved as the age increased (r = 0.294). The relationship between the field of study and marital status with knowledge, attitude, and practice behavior was not significant. Academic sources were chosen as the first knowledge source (41.3%).
CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge and practice behaviors of participants were undesirable, but their attitude was acceptable. Updating the information of participants about oral health by inclusion of the oral health issues in their academic textbooks can improve their awareness and practice behaviors.

Keywords


1. Dutt P, Chaudhary S, Kumar P. Oral health and menopause: A comprehensive review on current knowledge and associated dental management. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2013; 3(3): 320-3.
2. Guncu G, Tozum TF. The effects of estrogen, progesteron and testosterone on periodontal tissues. The Journal Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry 2005; 22(2): 121-7. [In Turkish].
3. Steinberg BJ, Minsk L, Gluch JI, Giorgio SK. Women’s oral health issues. In: Clouse AL, Sherif K, editors. Women’s health in clinical practice: A handbook for primary care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008. p. 273-93.
4. Canakci CF, Canakci V. Pain experienced by patients undergoing different periodontal therapies. J Am Dent Assoc 2007; 138(12): 1563-73.
5. Mishra PS, Marawar PP, Mishra SS. A cross-sectional, clinical study to evaluate mobility of teeth during pregnancy using periotest. Indian J Dent Res 2017; 28(1): 10-5.
6. Wu M, Chen SW, Su WL, Zhu HY, Ouyang SY, Cao YT, et al. Sex hormones enhance gingival inflammation without affecting IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in periodontally healthy women during pregnancy. Mediators Inflamm 2016; 2016: 4897890.
7. Xiong X, Buekens P, Fraser WD, Beck J, Offenbacher S. Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review. BJOG 2006; 113(2): 135-43.
8. Manrique-Corredor EJ, Orozco-Beltran D, Lopez-Pineda A, Quesada JA, Gil-Guillen VF, Carratala-Munuera C. Maternal periodontitis and preterm birth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2019. [Epub ahead of print].
9. Slots J. Periodontitis: facts, fallacies and the future. Periodontol 2000 2017; 75(1): 7-23.
10. Parihar AS, Katoch V, Rajguru SA, Rajpoot N, Singh P, Wakhle S. Periodontal disease: a possible risk-factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. J Int Oral Health 2015; 7(7): 137-42.
11. Lauren M, Minire A, Maldi X, Mirton M, Aferdita M. The impact of periodontitis in the preterm birth and body size of newborns. Mater Sociomed 2012; 24(1): 44-7.
12. Romero R, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Conoscenti G, Kim JC, Kim YM. The role of infection in preterm labour and delivery. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2001; 15(Suppl 2): 41-56.
13. Bhalla A, Anuradha KP. Dental awareness and attitudes among gynaecologists/obstetricians in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh. Reviews of Progress 2013; 1(3): 1-8.
14. Ramya S, Ashwini R, Arathi R, Mamata T. Knowledge, attitude and practice amongst gynecologists and pediatricians about oral health in Mangalore City: A questionnaire survey. J Pierre Fauchard Acad 2012; 26(1): 39-40.
15. Yazdani R, Mohebbi SZ, Janeshin A, Tartar Z. Oral health knowledge, attitude, and status and oral health index among midwifery students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. J Oral Health Oral Epidemiol 2013; 2(2): 1-8.
16. Zanata RL, Fernandes KB, Navarro PS. Prenatal dental care: evaluation of professional knowledge of obstetricians and dentists in the cities of Londrina/PR and Bauru/SP, Brazil, 2004. J Appl Oral Sci 2008; 16(3): 194-200.
17. Laslowski P, Politano GT, Raggio DP, da Silva SREP, Imparato JCP. Physician's knowledge about dental treatment during pregnancy. Rev Gaucha Odontol 2012; 60(3): 297-303. [In Portuguese].
18. Shenoy RP, Nayak DG, Sequeira PS. Periodontal disease as a risk factor in pre-term low birth weight--an assessment of gynecologists' knowledge: a pilot study. Indian J Dent Res 2009; 20(1): 13-6.
19. Shah HG, Ajithkrishnan C, Sodani V, Chaudhary NJ. Knowledge, attitude and practices among gynecologists regarding oral health of expectant mothers of Vadodara City, Gujarat. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2013; 7(2): 136-40.
20. Golkari A, Khosropanah H, Saadati F. Evaluation of knowledge and practice behaviours of a group of Iranian obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives, regarding periodontal disease and its effect on the pregnancy outcome. J Public Health Res 2013; 2(2): e15.
21. Wilder R, Robinson C, Jared HL, Lieff S, Boggess K. Obstetricians' knowledge and practice behaviors concerning periodontal health and preterm delivery and low birth weight. J Dent Hyg 2007; 81(4): 81.
22. Cohen L, Schaeffer M, Davideau JL, Tenenbaum H, Huck O. Obstetric knowledge, attitude, and behavior concerning periodontal diseases and treatment needs in pregnancy: influencing factors in France. J Periodontol 2015; 86(3): 398-405.
23. Rahman G, Asa'ad F, Baseer MA. Periodontal health awareness among gynecologists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015; 5(3): 211-7.
24. Suri V, Rao NC, Aggarwal N. A study of obstetricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices in oral health and pregnancy. Educ Health (Abingdon) 2014; 27(1): 51-4.
25. Hashim R, Akbar M. Gynecologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding oral health and periodontal disease leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2014; 4(Suppl 3): S166-S172.
26. Patil S, Thakur R, K M, Paul ST, Gadicherla P. Oral Health coalition: Knowledge, attitude, practice behaviours among gynaecologists and dental practitioners. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1): 8-15.
27. Wagner Y, Heinrich-Weltzien R. Midwives’ oral health recommendations for pregnant women, infants and young children: Results of a nationwide survey in Germany. BMC Oral Health 2016; 16(1): 36.