Translation and validation of Persian version of Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+)

Document Type: Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Dentist, Oral and Dental Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Being able to measure dental anxiety and fear is a necessary prerequisite for studying and understanding the nature and consequences of this common fear. Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+) is the latest scale presented for the assessment of dental anxiety, but it has never been applied in Iran. The aim of this study was to validate the IDAF-4C+ for use among Persian population.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 334 dental patients participated. The English original version of the IDAF-4C+ questionnaire was translated into Persian language by a forward–backward translation method. Reliability was determined by internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest method measuring by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was used to assess convergent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. The relationship between demographic characteristics of age, sex, economical status, and income with dental anxiety also was assessed.
RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the IDAF-4C+ was 0.91. The coefficient of test re-test reliability was 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.87]. Pearson correlation coefficient between IDAF-4C+ and DAS was statistically significant at P < 0.001 (r = 0.74). In our study, fear and anxiety among women and patients with low income were significantly high.
CONCLUSION: The Persian version of IDAF-4C+ is a reliable and valid tool to measure dental anxiety and fear among Persian population.


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