Cicek Y, Ertas U. The normal and pathological pigmentation of oral mucous membrane: A review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003; 4(3): 76-86.
Becker SW. Melanin pigmentation: A Systematic study of the pigment of the human skin and upper mucous membranes, with special consideration of pigmented dendritic cells. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol 1927; 16(3): 259-90.
Laidlaw GF, Cahn LR. Melanoblasts in the gum. J Dent Res 1932; 12: 534-7.
Halaban R, Cheng E, Svedine S, Aron R, Hebert DN. Proper folding and endoplasmic reticulum to golgi transport of tyrosinase are induced by its substrates, DOPA and tyrosine. J Biol Chem 2001; 276(15): 11933-8.
Hanioka T, Tanaka K, Ojima M, Yuuki K. Association of melanin pigmentation in the gingiva of children with parents who smoke. Pediatrics 2005; 116(2): e186-e190.
Moravej-Salehi E, Moravej-Salehi E, Hajifattahi F. Relationship of Gingival Pigmentation with Passive Smoking in Women. Tanaffos 2015; 14(2): 107-14.
Hedin CA, Axell T. Oral melanin pigmentation in 467 Thai and Malaysian people with special emphasis on smoker's melanosis. J Oral Pathol Med 1991; 20(1): 8-12.
Sridharan S, Ganiger K, Satyanarayana A, Rahul A, Shetty S. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke from smoker parents on gingival pigmentation in children and young adults: A cross-sectional study. J Periodontol 2011; 82(7): 956-62.
Ponnaiyan D, Chillara P, Palani Y. Correlation of environmental tobacco smoke to gingival pigmentation and salivary alpha amylase in young adults. Eur J Dent 2017; 11(3): 364-9.
Axell T, Hedin CA. Epidemiologic study of excessive oral melanin pigmentation with special reference to the influence of tobacco habits. Scand J Dent Res 1982; 90(6): 434-42.
Soliman N, Mikhael F. Passive smoking and alveolar bone density. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2009; 3(2): 713-9.
Aligne CA, Moss ME, Auinger P, Weitzman M. Association of pediatric dental caries with passive smoking. JAMA 2003; 289(10): 1258-64.
Argacha JF, Adamopoulos D, Gujic M, Fontaine D, Amyai N, Berkenboom G, et al. Acute effects of passive smoking on peripheral vascular function. Hypertension 2008; 51(6): 1506-11.
John EM, Savitz DA, Sandler DP. Prenatal exposure to parents' smoking and childhood cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133(2): 123-32.
NN B Hasmun, Drummond BK, Milne T, Cullinan MP, Meldrum AM, Coates D. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the oral health of preschool children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2017; 18(6): 393-8.
Baab DA, Oberg PA. The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival blood flow in humans. J Clin Periodontol 1987; 14(7): 418-24.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. Int J Surg 2014; 12(12): 1495-9.
Hajifattahi F, Azarshab M, Haghgoo R, Lesan S. Evaluation of the relationship between passive smoking and oral pigmentation in children. J Dent (Tehran) 2010; 7(3): 119-23.
Yadav R, Deo V, Kumar P, Heda A. Influence of environmental tobacco smoke on gingival pigmentation in schoolchildren. Oral Health Prev Dent 2015; 13(5): 407-10.