Evaluation of prognostic factors of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in Iranian patients: A narrative review

Document Type : Review Article(s)


1 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Oral and maxillofacial pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran



Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the largest proportion of head and neck cancers (HNCs). Despite new treatment modalities, the 5-year survival rate has not improved much. Identifying the factors affecting the prognosis and survival of patients is the first step in trying to improve the prognosis of these patients. The aim of this review was to investigate prognostic factors of HNSCC in Iran.


A web-based search of all original articles conducted in Iran until October 2022 on prognostic factors of HNSCC was done using English and Persian language databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, IranMedex, etc. The data were categorized according to clinical, histopathological and treatment parameters.


A total of 7 articles related to the aim of this study were found. Age and regular periodic follow-ups were common prognostic factors in three studies. The results about factors such as the tumor staging and treatment method were contradictory among different studies. It seems that some factors such as gender, microscopic grading, and patient and professional delay in cancer management have no effect on the prognosis of this group of patients. Conclusions on some factors, such as P53 and EGFR expression and body mass index, also seem to require further investigation.


Age and regular periodic follow-ups are among the common prognostic factors that have been mentioned in different studies. In order to improve the survival of HNSCC patients, diagnosis at lower ages and early stages of the tumor along with periodic evaluations after cancer treatment, seems necessary.


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